An antioxidant serum that targets pigmentation and sun damage Contains the maximum concentrations of well-researched ingredients Olive Squalane mimics the oil younger skin naturally produces Oil-soluble Vitamin C easily absorbs into skin and assists with sun damage Natural Vitamin E is highly bioavailable and has antioxidant properties We made this serum by dissolving an oil-soluble form of Vitamin C called Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate or VCIP, through a base of hydrating antioxidant oils that mimic the skin’s own sebum. This means that it’s easily absorbed into the skin, getting the goods right where you want them. Inferior water-soluble forms of Vitamin C don’t penetrate well into the skin and this form is the most expensive because it is the most stable, but worth it for the extra antioxidant activity, it provides to the skin. VCIP at this concentration is especially good for addressing pigmentation and sun damage. Although VCIP is a very expensive ingredient, we’ve done our best to keep this serum as affordable as possible. After comparing other serums with a similar amount of VCIP, we think you will be happy you found us. We only use Natural Vitamin E because synthetic Vitamin E (DL-Alpha Tocopherol) only contains Alpha Tocopherol while our Natural Vitamin E contains both Alpha and Gamma Tocopherol. Research is starting to suggest that it may be the Gamma Tocopherol that gives the most benefit to the skin. We love it so much that you’ll find it in almost all of our skin care products. The base oil is Olive Squalane, and we use it because it tops up the natural Squalane that your skin slowly stops making around your mid-20s. This provides hydration to the skin, and moist, hydrated skin has increased flexibility and resists forming lines and wrinkles. Tip: Mix with a few drops of your favourite moisturiser to make your cream more hydrating for those colder, drier months. Ingredients: Squalane (Olive), Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate (Oil-Soluble Vitamin C), Tocopherol (Natural Vitamin E).